IT之家 5 月 25 日消息，盖茨笔记发布了“Reddit 用户问我的最棒的问题 ”。下面是文章内容：
Yesterday I did my 10th Ask Me Anything on Reddit. I love doing AMAs because the Reddit crowd as a whole is well-informed, Redditors don’t pull any punches, and good questions usually get voted up toward the top. This year I spent an hour taking questions about pandemic prevention, climate change, farmland, my cell phone, and much more. I wish I’d had time to answer even more.
昨天（文章发布于 5 月 21 日），我在 Reddit 上完成了第 10 次“问我任何事”（AMA）在线问答。我很喜欢 AMA 活动，因为 Reddit 的用户群体知识广博，问题犀利，而且好的问题通常会被置顶。今年，我花了一个小时回答了关于大流行病预防、气候变化、农田、我的手机等问题。我本希望有时间来回答更多的问题。
Here’s a transcript of my favorite questions and my answers:
Redditor’s question: In the Netflix documentary series, one thing that was quite remarkable to me was how you and your team were able to design a nuclear reactor that produces uses already nuclear waste as a fuel. However this design was never implemented due to political reasons. My question is: Given that this technology has the potential to be the most-effective green energy source and have a key role in reversing climate change, what’s the current status on the project? Is it a likely possibility that this nuclear reactor will be built in the upcoming years? If so, do you plan on building in China or would you consider building such a project on US soil? Thanks.
My answer: We are still working on this. At first the project was a US-China joint venture but the US cancelled that. So now we are building the demo reactor in Wyoming where a coal plant is closing. It is very promising in terms of the cost and safety advances. If things go well a lot of these reactors will help solve climate change. Eventually we want reactors globally but the first ones will be in the US even though competing with natural gas electricity is hard here.
Do you have a medical degree? Then why are you getting involved in medicine? Why should your medical opinion matter?
The Foundation has a lot of Medical experts. It takes a huge range of skills to do things like Malaria eradication or Covid vaccines and therapeutics. I listen to the experts on specific medical advice. The system to prevent pandemics will require a lot more than just doctors so I wrote a book to start the discussion of what it should look like.
How do you see climate change happening in next 10-20 years? And how are we doing as a civilization to counter that? What's our biggest challenge?
你如何看待未来 10-20 年内的气候变化？我们的文明该如何应对气候变化？我们面临的最大挑战是什么？
The key is to be able to make things like electricity, steel, cement and meat without any emissions but at a cost equal or lower than today's cost. My efforts at Breakthrough Energy is to fund the innovators and help them scale up. I am optimistic because the progress on innovation in the last 3 years with the companies that have been funded is going very well.
Why did you pressure vaccine researchers not to open source the MRNA covid vaccines as was originally planned? Dont you think that wider access to this information would have increased access to vaccines at a critical time?
你为什么向疫苗研究人员施压，不让他们按原计划公开 MRNA 新冠疫苗的信息？你难道不认为在这样的关键时刻，更广泛地获取这些信息会增加疫苗的可及性吗？
Our Foundation is funding the low cost vaccine manufacturers to do mRNA vaccines. They used other platforms for pandemic vaccines but in the future we will make sure they can do mRNA as well. We are funding mRNA to be used for HIV and Malaria. All the steps to get Covid vaccines out were done by the summer of 2020 and it lead to huge scaling up to put us in the oversupply situation we are in today. With the right technologies we can do it a lot faster and more equitably in the future.
我们基金会正在资助低成本疫苗厂商生产 mRNA 疫苗。以前，他们使用其他平台生产新冠疫苗，但在未来，我们将确保他们也能生产 mRNA 疫苗。我们正在资助 mRNA 技术用于治疗艾滋病和疟疾。所有新冠疫苗的研发步骤都是在 2020 年秋天之前完成的，这促使了疫苗的大规模生产，使我们如今处于疫苗过剩、供过于求的局面。有了正确的技术，我们就可以在未来更快、更公平地研发疫苗。
How did you manage with stress during all of your class-action lawsuits of the 1990s and 2000s?
在 20 世纪 90 年代和 21 世纪初的一系列集体诉讼事件中，你是如何应对压力的？
Although those lawsuits were tough I have been super lucky in my life and I had a good team of people working with me to help get them settled and move ahead.
Bill, thank you for taking the time. Big fan of both your work at Microsoft, Bill and Melinda Gates foundation and Berkshire Hathaway. I want to ask you about how most philanthropists think about RETURN ON INVESTMENT OF CHARITY. Most (billionaire) people doesn't seem to put much effort on it and just pick whatever subject they're most interested. As far as I understand, you option for epidemiology and sanitation was a diligent choice, because you think that money and a drive for business gives the most bang for the buck (some newspapers cover your fierce negotiation position to get us the vaccines, something that you are good at and I am thankful for). My question is. Do you think that most philanthropists are as diligent on their philanthropy as they were when they made their wealth? What are good themes where a drive for business can help the most?
I was stunned when I found out that a life could be saved for under $1000. This came when I read about what kids die of including the 1993 World Development report. So our Foundation (supported by Warren Buffett's incredible generosity) prioritized this. The success of our work in Global Health is well beyond what I would have expected. I do work with other philanthropists a lot including through the Giving Pledge where they can learn and be encouraged to be bold.
当我发现，付出不到 1000 美元就可以挽救一个人的生命时，我深受震撼。这是我从包括 1993 年世界发展报告等材料中读到儿童死亡的原因时了解到的。因此，我们的基金会（获得了沃伦・巴菲特极大的慷慨支持）将这一点作为了优先考虑事项。我们在全球健康领域工作的成功远远超出了我的预期。我的确经常与其他慈善家合作，包括通过“捐赠誓言”的活动。这一捐赠承诺组织帮助人们了解并鼓励他们大胆捐赠财富。
Mr. Gates, What are your thoughts on indoor farming?
For some high value crops it can work. For the cereal crops like wheat, rice and maize it is unlikely to ever be economic. We can improve seeds for all crops a lot to increase productivity - this is a key investment to help reduce the problems caused by climate change.
对于一些高价值的作物，室内农业是可行的。对于小麦、水稻和玉米等谷类作物来说，这种做法不够经济实惠。我们可以对所有作物的种子进行大幅改良，以提高产量 —— 这是一项关键的投资，有助于减少气候变化引发的问题。
Can you a still jump over a chair from a standing start?
A smaller chair than I could do at age 30... Pretty small now. I try to stay fit playing a lot of tennis.
相比我 30 岁时能跳过的椅子，我现在能跳过的椅子要小一点... 小得多。我现在靠常打网球来努力保持身材。
Took 4 doses of vaccine, 5G reception still bad. Any tips?
You need 5th one, with 4 you'll only get LTE at most
我接种了 4 剂疫苗，但 5G 接收信号仍然不好。有什么建议吗？
你需要接种第 5 剂疫苗，只接种 4 剂你最多只能使用 4G 网（LTE）。
I must be wearing the wrong kind of tin foil hat because it doesn't work for me.
（译者注：锡箔帽（tin foil hat）是一种用铝箔纸制作的帽子，佩戴这种帽子的人们相信这能够帮助他们免受脑控、电磁场、读心术和精神控制的影响。科学界相信这是患有被害妄想等精神疾病和受到伪科学的误导。这个词多用作指代阴谋论者。）
Hello Mr. Gates, huge fan of your work. What advice would you give young people who want to make a positive impact on this world? Greetings from Honduras.
The ideal thing is to read a lot and hopefully find a skill you enjoy that can have impact. For some that means being great at science or engineering. For some it means being a great communicator or politician. For some it means being a nurse or a doctor. The opportunity to learn is better today than ever before.
What is the future of nuclear power?
There is nuclear fission. If it can solve the cost, safety and waste concerns it can make a massive contribution to solving climate change. I am biased because I have been investing over a billion in this starting over a decade ago. Also promising is nuclear fusion. It is less clear if we will succeed but it has less safety and waste issues if it works. So I am hopeful nuclear will improve and be a huge help for climate.
现在已有核裂变技术。如果能解决其成本、安全和废料问题，该技术可以为解决气候变化做出巨大贡献。我之所以偏爱它，是因为十年来，我已经为此投资了超过 10 亿美元。核聚变也很有前景。目前还太不清楚我们是否会成功，但如果能够成功，核安全性和废料问题就会更少。因此，我对核能技术的进步充满希望，并相信核能能够对气候变化起到巨大的帮助。
What's the one thing you've bought that's brought you the most joy?
If we do succeed in polio eradication that will be super joyful. It has taken a lot of patience and great strategy to get close to success. The thing that has succeeded the best so far is funding vaccines for poor countries through GAVI. I do like burgers, nice tennis racquets and all the great streaming services but nothing too unique.
Your top 5 books of all time?
看过的所有书中，你最喜欢哪 5 本？
Two of Smil's latest Grand Transitions and How the World Really Works are great. Pinker has a lot of great books including The Better Angels of our Nature. I am just finishing the Coddling of the American Mind which was good. Ezra Klein's book on Polarization is good. Of course fiction books are more fun like Heart or A Gentleman in Moscow or All the Light you cannot see...
How are you guys preventing further strain mutations and vaccine adaptability of viruses for the "no more pandemics" goal?
We can make vaccines that have 3 additional things: broad coverage, long duration and infection blocking. These need to be R&D priorities to prevent pandemics but they will also be super helpful for all sorts of diseases.
Why is the COVID-19 model behaving very differently in America as compared to other countries? With state-of-the-art vaccines and close to 70% of people fully vaccinated, the cases are always rising after dipping for a few days. Looking at the statistics of the number of people catching COVID and the number of people dying due to it, seemed like this was to end by January / February. The model is quite weird.
为什么美国的新冠模型与其他国家差别很大？美国有着最先进的疫苗和接近 70% 的疫苗完全接种率，感染病例却总是在几天的短暂下降后回升。从感染新冠和因其死亡的人数统计来看，似乎大流行应在 1 月或是 2 月就会结束。这一模型相当奇怪。
The new variants come along and evade immunity from vaccination and infection. Also immunity wanes fairly quickly in the elderly. When the cases are high people do change their behavior and when they are low they go back to normal behavior. So you get huge ups and downs in the case rate driven by seasons, variants and people's behavior. Fortunately Omicron is less fatal than previous variants.
Which developing countries are you most optimistic about?
Some of the so called LMIC (Low Middle Income) countries have huge promise - Vietnam, India, Pakistan, Indonesia. In Africa it is important for Kenya, Tanzania, Nigeria and Ethiopia to succeed. Ethiopia was doing well until the civil unrest so hopefully they can get past that. Some of the smaller countries are doing well but we need the big ones to also do well.
一些所谓的中低收入国家有着光明的前景 —— 比如越南、印度、巴基斯和印度尼西亚。在非洲，肯尼亚、坦桑尼亚、尼日利亚和埃塞俄比亚的成功也至关重要。埃塞俄比亚在发生内乱之前一直做得很好，我希望他们能够渡过难关。一些小国做得很好，但我们需要那些大国也表现良好。
What happened with the Oxford vaccine? Why wasn't it open source so that all countries could make it? I am so sad over how slow the vaccination in third world countries has been.
牛津 / 阿斯利康新冠疫苗发生了什么问题？为什么不公开疫苗的信息，让所有国家都能生产？我对第三世界国家疫苗接种工作进展缓慢感到非常难过。
The world did not get the vaccines out in an equitable way. Places like India did well because the Gates Foundation, Serum and the Government of India worked together to make 1.4B doses of the Astra Zeneca vaccines. It was a tragedy that old people in countries like South Africa got vaccines after young people in other countries. My book talks about how we can do better next time. Today there is plenty of vaccine but still the distribution and demand is holding back coverage.
世界并没有以一种公平的方式获得疫苗。像印度这样的国家做得很好，因为有盖茨基金会、印度血清研究所和印度政府的共同努力，生产了 14 亿剂阿斯利康疫苗。而南非等国的老人在其他国家的年轻人接种之后才获得疫苗，这是一场悲剧。我的书中谈到了下次我们如何能做得更好。现在已有大量的疫苗，但其分发和需求问题仍在阻碍着疫苗的普及。
What are the biggest innovations in global and public health you expect to see in the next 5-10 years?
未来的 5-10 年里，在全球健康和公共卫生领域，你期望看到的最大创新是什么?
We are gaining understanding of malnutrition. Solving this would be huge for the 40% of kids in Africa who never fully develop their brains or bodies. We still need to prevent and cure HIV. We need to eradicate Malaria (which will take decades). We are close to eradicating polio. Other areas like better contraception or understanding and preventing pre-term birth and still births show promise.
我们正在逐渐了解营养不良的问题。解决这个问题对于非洲 40% 的儿童来说意义重大，因为他们的大脑和身体从未发育完全。我们仍然需要预防和治愈艾滋病。我们需要根除疟疾（这将需要几十年时间）。我们已经接近于根除脊髓灰质炎。其他领域，如更好的避孕措施或研究和预防早产和死产，也显露出光明前景。。
Why do you think the world was utterly unprepared for Covid?
Infectious disease in rich countries isn't the big problem it used to be. For things like fire and earthquakes we have small ones to remind us of the problem. A pandemic that gets into Europe or the US only comes along rarely so it is easy to not practice and not have dedicated resources. A few countries like Australia did a better job and have 10% of the deaths of most rich countries.
I was in the 2nd cohort for the Gates Millennium scholarship. 💗 Just wanted to personally thank you for helping me be the 1st in my family to attend college. Do you still have any involvement with the scholar program?
Yes. The Foundation did 20,000 scholarships under the original program. We have an ongoing program that is not quite as big but still is attracting great students. I am always inspired when I meet the students who received the scholarship and are helping other kids.
是的。我们基金会在原项目中提供了 20,000 个奖学金名额。我们还有一个正在进行的项目，虽然规模不大，但仍在吸引着优秀学生。每次与那些获得奖学金并正致力于帮助其他孩子的学生见面时，我总是深受鼓舞。
How short are you on GME?
I have never been long or short gamestop.
What do you think the long-term impact of covid will be on society? I'm out in NYC and we are at a point where 1 in 5 people are catching covid and no one seems to be receptive of preventing the spread anymore. I ended up getting it last week despite being vaccinated and the symptoms were awful. Do you think there will be long-term ramifications of everyone going through covid in the next few months because people are unwilling to prevent the spread anymore?
Neither vaccination or infection prevents you from getting infected again but the disease will be milder and you will spread it less. Scientists funded by the Foundation are working on vaccines that prevent you from getting infected but those are 3-4 years away in the best case. So until then we will have to keep getting boosted (especially people who are older or who have co-morbidities).
疫苗或感染都不能防止你再次被感染，但疾病的症状会更温和，你传播病毒的概率也会更小。由盖茨基金会资助的科学家们正在研究防止你（再次）被感染的疫苗，但这些疫苗在最好的情况下也需要 3 至 4 年才能研发出来。所以在那之前，我们将不得不继续接种加强针（尤其是那些年龄较大或有合并症的人群）。
What kind of phone do you have?
I have an Android Galaxy ZFold3. I try different ones. With this screen I can get by with a great portable PC and the phone and nothing else.
我有一部三星 Galaxy 系列的折叠屏智能手机 Galaxy Z Fold3。我会尝试不同的机型。有了这部手机的屏幕，我相当于同时拥有了一台很棒的便携式电脑和一部手机，不需要其他设备了。
What's something I can do now to help with climate change?
As green products come out like electric cars or synthetic meat or heat pumps for home heating/cooling they will cost a bit extra. By buying these products you drive scaling up which will lead to lower prices so "green premiums" are reduced. Other than your political voice or influencing the company you work at this is probably the biggest thing you can do.
绿色产品，如电动汽车、合成肉或用于家庭供暖 / 制冷的热泵纷纷涌现，它们将需要一些额外的成本。通过购买这些产品，你会推动其扩大生产规模从而降低价格因此“绿色溢价”会减少。除了你的政治声音或对你工作的公司产生影响之外，这可能是你为抗击气候变化所能做的最大贡献。
Hey Bill, what do you think about Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies?
I don't own any. I like investing in things that have valuable output. The value of companies is based on how they make great products. The value of crypto is just what some other person decides someone else will pay for it so not adding to society like other investments.
Quite a big chunk of the population of my country (for some reason) believes that you're the one responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic and that you're trying to take control of the human population by injecting chips in them through vaccines. What would you say to these people?
In 2015 I spoke out about my fears a pandemic would come up and cause tens of millions of deaths. My foundation funds vaccine research to save lives. I spend billions on vaccines and I am proud they have helped cut under 5 deaths in half over the last 20 years (from 10% to 5%). The idea of chips in the vaccines doesn't make sense. Why would I want to know where people are? What would I do with the information?
2015 年，我曾公开表示我担心一场突然出现的大流行病将导致数千万人死亡。盖茨基金会资助疫苗研究以拯救生命，我在疫苗上投入了数十亿美元。在过去 20 年间，疫苗使得 5 岁以下儿童的死亡率减少了一半（从 10% 降至 5%），我为此感到自豪。在疫苗中植入芯片的想法是毫无依据的。我为什么要知道人们在哪里？我要这些信息做什么？
What do you think is the best way to combat misinformation / politicization of public health concerns by politicians or bad news outlets?
I keep looking for good idea of how to stop the bad information. Some stuff is obviously wrong and right now even that doesn't get stopped. The interest level in the crazy explanations make that spread really fast and the truth doesn't spread because it is boring. I feel bad if these rumors prevent people from getting vaccinated and boosted since that has saved millions of lives.
What do you plan to do with all the farmland you have purchased?
My investment team bought the farmland. It is less than .1% of all US farmland because the ownership is so diverse. We invest in the farms to raise productivity. Some are near cities and might end up having other uses.
What is an appropriate level of taxation for the rich?
A tax system needs to be progressive. Getting marginal rates above 60% often leads to a lot of complex avoidance if your system allows for that. It is strange to have the capital gain rate below the ordinary income rate. An estate tax could go somewhat above 60% - it is amazing how few countries have those.
税收制度必须是累进的。如果制度允许，边际税率超过 60% 往往会导致很多复杂的避税行为。让资本利得税率低于普通收入所得税率是很奇怪的。遗产税可能会超过 60%—— 令人惊讶的是，只有很少一部分国家有这种税率。